Feyerabends Concept Of Epistemological Anarchism Philosophy Essay (2022)

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Then briefly characterize one argument that Fererabend gives ( or could give) for such theses. Finally, give ONE criticism of Feyerabend’s view ( either as a descriptive or a normative one ) and carefully develop it

Paul (Paul), Karl Feyerabend (1924-1994) – Philosophy and Methodology of Science, one representative post positivism.Formulated a number of fruitful methodological ideas, developed the anarchist theory of knowledge “which has received great attention in the international philosophical community.

Born January 13, 1924 in Vienna.Received an excellent education.His interests were very varied: in Weimar, he studied drama in London and Copenhagen and studied philosophy, microphysics, in Vienna – History.His teaching career began in Vienna as an assistant professor of the Vienna Institute of Arts and Sciences.From 1951 he lectured at the University of Bristol, from 1958 he worked in the U.S. (because of this it is usually ranked among the American Scientists).In 1954 the Republic of Austria won the prize for achievements in science and art.

Since the early 50’s held views, close to the analytical philosophy as a kind of neo.In the mid-50 attended seminars Popper and some time was his successor, but soon took a critical stance towards poppernianstvu.Nevertheless, the influence of Karl Popper noticeable in later works (for example, Popper’s principle of falsifiability, in which Feyerabend is brought to the limit).

(Video) Post-Kuhnian Philosophy of Science: Paul Feyerabend (1 of 2)

Name Feyerabend has acquired international fame thanks to the concept of “epistemological anarchism”.The concept stems from criticism of the orthodox scientific approach, which is based on two principles: 1.dedutsiruemosti principle according to which all successful theory in the same area must be compatible, 2.invariance principle values, whereby if the inclusion of some new theory TÑž into the body of the old theory T, is the correction value theory TÑž, change the ontology of a new theory on the ontology of the old.The desire to reconcile the new theory with the old, to make them consistent results in the fact that there are still not the best, but the older theory.

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Furthermore, Feyerabend criticizes the view that theory – just a convenient scheme for organizing facts.He emphasizes that every scientific theory has its own special way of viewing the world.Her perception is influenced by our shared beliefs and expectations, and through this – the experience and our perception of the real.It turns out that the “facts” and “experimental results”, serve as a measure of reliability theory in the classical science, is not so infallible, but rather due to the original setting of the researcher.On the basis of this statement Feyerabend introduces “kontrinduktsii rule” which states that it is necessary to introduce and develop hypotheses that are incompatible with the well-grounded theory that existed previously with the facts and the experimental data.Because it is often evidence that can disprove a theory, can be obtained only by using an alternative that is incompatible with this theory.The recommendation to use an alternative only after a denial has discredited the orthodox theory, puts, according to Feyerabend, the cart before the horse.Rule kontrinduktivnosti Feyerabend puts the basis of its pluralistic methodology.In the article against the methodological constraint (Against Method, London: Verso, 1975) Feyerabend wrote that a true scientist should “compare ideas with other ideas, not experience, and seek to improve those concepts that were defeated in the competition, rather than discard them.In doing so, he retains the concept of man and cosmos as contained in the book of life or Poimandre and will use them to gauge the success of the theory of evolution and other innovative concepts. ”Feyerabend gained fame largely due to the requirement to develop incompatible with the facts of the theory on the grounds that there was no single more or less interesting theory, which is consistent with all known facts.For the possible existence of a pluralistic methodology to the lack of established standards, propaganda, coercion.Hence the thesis that “everything is permissible» («anything goes»).

(Video) Epistemological anarchism

Feyerabend said that science – it is a relatively new form of knowledge that occurred two hundred years ago, which was born in a fierce conflict with religion and, perhaps, itself sooner or later be barred from forward positions in any other form of knowledge.Science is much closer to myth than willing to allow philosophy of science.She dazzles only those who have already decided in favor of a particular ideology or not at all reflect on the advantages and limitations of science.After all, modern science is dominated not by virtue of its merits, but because organized for her advocacy and promotions.This is – a form of ideology, and she, according to Feyerabend, should be separated from the state, as is already done in regard to religion.How can organize the state in which there is an approach to science?

First of all, Feyerabend rejects the idea that to solve the problems there should be a theory, developed by experts, ieintellectuals who explain what is possible and impossible.In a free society, intellectuals, and ideas that they value, and the ways that they deem most appropriate, represent only one of many traditions.Problems are solved by non-specialist (though their advice is not ignored).Feyerabend writes: “But take, for example, the idea of motion of the Earth.It originated in antiquity, was defeated by arguments aristotelikov, was considered an incredible absurdity of Ptolemy, and, nevertheless, returned in triumph in the 18 century.One can cite many other examples to prove the following moral: the time lag in the development of some ideology (which is a bunch of theories, connected with a specific method and more general philosophical concept) should not be considered grounds for its removal. “(Selected Works on the methodology of science / Science in a free society., 1978. S. 471).

To create a free society should provide equal rights to all traditions, but in order to implement this project to change the structure of society from the ideological to the protective, (do not impose a theory as required, but supporting all theories).Of course, Feyerabend often been accused of outrageous and utopian, but we can not deny the positive influence of his critics on the academic, an established and dogmatize science.

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In his book Against Method and Science in a free society, Feyerabend defended the idea that there is no methodological rules, which are always used by scientists.He opposed a single, tradition, scientific method, arguing that any such method of putting some limits on the activities of scientists, and thus limits the progress.According to his view, science would benefit most from a “dose” of anarchism in scientific theory.He also believed that anarchism in theory desirable, because it is more humanistic approach than the other scientific systems, since it does not force scientists to rigid rules.

Can we exclude the possibility that the presently known science, or “search for truth” in the style of traditional philosophy, will turn a man into a monster?Is it possible to exclude the possibility that it will be waning man turned into a miserable, moody, arrogant mechanism, devoid of charm and sense of humor?“Can we rule out the possibility – asks Kierkegaard – that my work as an objective or rational {} critical observer of nature weakens my human nature?” I believe that the answer to all these questions must be negative, and I am sure thatReform of Sciences, which will make them more anarchistic and more subjective (in Kierkegaard’s sense) is essential.(Against Method, pp. 154)

Feyerabend’s position in the philosophical community is radical enough, since it implies that philosophy can not successfully describe science as a whole, nor can it develop a method of separating scientific papers on nonscientific entities, such as myths.It also suggests that developed and recommended by the philosophy of “common course” of science should be rejected by scientists, if it is necessary for further progress.

To support his contention that adherence to methodological rules does not lead to success in science, Feyerabend cites examples to refute statements that would (correctly) the science is valid corresponds to certain fixed rules.He considers some of the episodes in the history of science that are considered indisputable examples of progress in science (such as the scientific revolution of Copernicus), and shows that in these cases violated all accepted rules of science.Moreover, he argues that if these rules are adhered to, then in these historical situations scientific revolution could not happen.

One of the criteria for evaluating scientific theories, which is actively Feyerabend criticized – is a criterion for consistency.He points out that the insistence on the fact that the new theory has consistently continued the old theory that gives undue advantage of the old theories, and that the sequence with respect to the old theories do not lead to the fact that the new theory describes reality better than another new theory, which is asequence is not in compliance.That is, if you need to choose between two equally compelling theories, the choice of one of them, which is compatible with the old, already invalid theory will be more aesthetic choice, rather than rational.“Acquaintance” of such a theory, scientists can also be harmful because they do not discard many long-standing bias in the transition to a new theory.

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What is epistemological anarchy? ›

Epistemological anarchism is an epistemological theory advanced by Austrian philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend which holds that there are no useful and exception-free methodological rules governing the progress of science or the growth of knowledge.

Why does Feyerabend wish to defend society against science What does he suggest to do for it? ›

Feyerabend's goal is to overthrow the tyrant of science which has ruled as “fact”, unchecked for centuries. He argued that science should have been only a stage in the development of society, a tool to overthrow other ideologies, then itself be overthrown (or at least questioned) by a new system.

What was Feyerabend known for? ›

Feyerabend became famous for his purportedly anarchistic view of science and his rejection of the existence of universal methodological rules. He was an influential figure in the sociology of scientific knowledge. Asteroid (22356) Feyerabend is named in his honour.

What is the concept of anarchy? ›

Anarchy, derived from a Greek word meaning "having no ruler," is a belief system that rejects governmental authority in favor of self-governing or community consensus that has become a synonym for chaos and the breakdown of civil order.

What is an example of epistemological theory? ›

For example, my belief that the time is 11:56 is justified because it's based on the clock, but it's true because I happened to walk by at just the right moment. So, we might insist that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified, and its truth and justification must be connected somehow.

Why is it important for a society to be ready with what science will offer even in today's modern way of thinking? ›

Science is valued by society because the application of scientific knowledge helps to satisfy many basic human needs and improve living standards. Finding a cure for cancer and a clean form of energy are just two topical examples.

What are the two main arguments against scientism? ›

Two central arguments against scientism, the (false) dilemma and self-referential incoherence, are analysed. Of the four types of epistemological scientism, three can deal with these counterarguments by utilizing two methodological principles: epistemic evaluability of reliability and epistemic opportunism.

How do you defend society against science? ›

Paul Feyerabend · How to Defend Society Against Science (1975)

Who is associated with the anarchist method of science? ›

Feyerabend was at one time a follower and defender of Karl Popper, but he ultimately broke with Popper and became famous for his purportedly anarchistic view of science and his rejection of the existence of universal methodological rules.

What do you mean by logical positivism? ›

logical positivism, also called logical empiricism, a philosophical movement that arose in Vienna in the 1920s and was characterized by the view that scientific knowledge is the only kind of factual knowledge and that all traditional metaphysical doctrines are to be rejected as meaningless.

Was Thomas Kuhn a philosopher of science? ›

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922–1996) is one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century, perhaps the most influential. His 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is one of the most cited academic books of all time.

What is the main purpose of anarchy? ›

Anarchists seek a system based on the abolition of all coercive hierarchy, in particular the state, and many advocate for the creation of a system of direct democracy and worker cooperatives. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions.

What are the types of anarchism? ›

Social anarchism
  • Collectivist anarchism.
  • Anarcho-communism.
  • Philosophical anarchism.
  • Egoist anarchism.
  • Individualist anarchism in the United States.
  • Individualist anarchism in Europe.

What does the concept of anarchy mean in international relations? ›

anarchy, in political science and the study of international relations, the absence of any authority superior to nation-states and capable of arbitrating their disputes and enforcing international law.

What is the main concept of epistemology? ›

Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. It is concerned with the mind's relation to reality. What is it for this relation to be one of knowledge? Do we know things? And if we do, how and when do we know things?

What is the epistemological meaning of philosophy? ›

epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. The term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge.

What is epistemology in simple words? ›

Epistemology is the study of knowledge acquisition. It involves an awareness of certain aspects of reality, and it seeks to discover what is known and how it is known. Considered as a branch of philosophy, epistemology addresses cognitive sciences, cultural studies and the history of science.

Why do you think the society readily accepts the benefits of science and technology even though negative results also come out from them? ›

The society still accepts the benefits of science and technology even though there are some negative results because the society is ready to accept risks, and we have to admit that science and technology has contributed so many advantages that changes our society into a better one.

Why is it important for people to study and learn about STS as an academic field? ›

It prepares them for careers in business, law, government, journalism, research, and education, and it provides a foundation for citizenship in a globalizing, diversifying world with rapid technological and scientific change.

Why is it important for people to study and learn about STS as an academic field especially in addressing the issue or problem depicted in the image? ›

STS is an important subject to be learned not just in the academic field but also in addressing the issue depicted in the photograph because it aims to develop the social responsibility of students, develop critical thinking and decision-making skills, the ability to formulate sound ethical and moral decisions about ...

What is scientism in simple words? ›

1 : methods and attitudes typical of or attributed to the natural scientist. 2 : an exaggerated trust in the efficacy of the methods of natural science applied to all areas of investigation (as in philosophy, the social sciences, and the humanities)

What is scientism in your own words? ›

Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Scientific methodology includes the following: Objective observation: Measurement and data (possibly although not necessarily using mathematics as a tool)

What is epistemic scientism? ›

Epistemological scientism lays claim to an exclusive approach to knowledge. Human inquiry is reduced to matters of material reality. We can know only those things that are ascertained by experimentation through application of the scientific method.

How science affects our society? ›

It contributes to ensuring a longer and healthier life, monitors our health, provides medicine to cure our diseases, alleviates aches and pains, helps us to provide water for our basic needs – including our food, provides energy and makes life more fun, including sports, music, entertainment and the latest ...

How will you use science in helping society? ›

We need science/the scientific method to solve current and future problems, including how to get along with one another, how to better predict severe weather like tornadoes and hurricanes, possible ways to fix climate change, and even how to cure cancer.

How has science affected our society? ›

By drastically changing our means of communication, the way we work, our housing, clothes, and food, our methods of transportation, and, indeed, even the length and quality of life itself, science has generated changes in the moral values and basic philosophies of mankind.

Who is known as the father of scientific anarchism? ›

Proudhon is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism". Proudhon became a member of the French Parliament after the Revolution of 1848, whereafter he referred to himself as a federalist.

Who was the main exponent of anarchism? ›

The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist (French: anarchiste) was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865), marking the formal birth of anarchism in the mid-19th century.

Which philosopher used the scientific method? ›

Aristotle pioneered scientific method in ancient Greece alongside his empirical biology and his work on logic, rejecting a purely deductive framework in favour of generalisations made from observations of nature.

What is the Epistemology of positivism? ›

Positivism as Epistemology. We acquire our knowledge from our sensory experience of the world and our interaction with it (empiricism). Knowledge-claims are only possible about objects that can be observed (empirical ontology). Genuine knowledge-claims are testable by experience (through observation or experiment).

What is an example of positivism in philosophy? ›

Positivism is the state of being certain or very confident of something. An example of positivism is a Christian being absolutely certain there is a God.

What is the main purpose of positivism? ›

Positivism is the name for the scientific study of the social world. Its goal is to formulate abstract and universal laws on the operative dynamics of the social universe.

What type of philosopher was Kuhn? ›

Thomas Kuhn
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy American philosophy
SchoolAnalytic Historical turn Historiographical externalism
InstitutionsHarvard University
11 more rows

What is Kuhn's theory of truth? ›

Kuhn says that in 'the previous tradition in philosophy of science, beliefs were to be evaluated for their truth or for their probability of being true, where truth meant something like correspondence to the real, the mind-independent external world'.

Why understanding the Kuhn cycle is important? ›

Why understanding the Kuhn Cycle is important. The global environmental sustainability problem is so large, complex, novel, urgent, and its solution so difficult that solving the problem entails creation of a new paradigm. Just conceiving of the problem requires a fundamentally new way of thinking.

What is meaning of epistemological? ›

epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. The term is derived from the Greek epistēmē (“knowledge”) and logos (“reason”), and accordingly the field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge.

What are the three types of anarchy? ›

On the basis of different nature of interaction between countries, Wendt believes that there may be a variety of anarchic cultures. He summarized three different international system anarchy cultures, namely Hobbesian, Lockean and Kantian (Ibid, 246-247).

What is an epistemological approach? ›

In simple terms, epistemology is the theory of knowledge and deals with how knowledge is gathered and from which sources. In research terms your view of the world and of knowledge strongly influences your interpretation of data and therefore your philosophical standpoint should be made clear from the beginning.

What is Plato's epistemological view? ›

Platonic epistemology holds that knowledge of Platonic Ideas is innate, so that learning is the development of ideas buried deep in the soul, often under the midwife-like guidance of an interrogator.

What is epistemological essay? ›

Indeed, it's easy to argue that an essay about anything which requires the author to broaden or refine his knowledge about a given topic, is itself an example of epistemology. Epistemology is narrowly defined as the study of knowledge and justified belief, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Why epistemology is important in our life? ›

The study of epistemology in philosophy is important because it helps us evaluate what we see or perceive. It helps us determine the true from the false and helps us gain productive knowledge i.e. knowledge that we can actually use to benefit oneself and others.

What is the importance of epistemology? ›

Epistemology is important because it influences how researchers frame their research in their attempts to discover knowledge. By looking at the relationship between a subject and an object we can explore the idea of epistemology and how it influences research design.

What is the main purpose of anarchy? ›

Anarchists seek a system based on the abolition of all coercive hierarchy, in particular the state, and many advocate for the creation of a system of direct democracy and worker cooperatives. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions.

What are the main characteristics of anarchism? ›

Anarchism is a political philosophy and movement that is skeptical of all justifications for authority and seeks to abolish the institutions they claim maintain unnecessary coercion and hierarchy, typically including, though not necessarily limited to, the state and capitalism.

Who is the father of anarchism? ›

Proudhon is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism". Proudhon became a member of the French Parliament after the Revolution of 1848, whereafter he referred to himself as a federalist.

What is the best introduction to epistemology? ›

  • Knowledge: A Very Short Introduction, by Jennifer Nagel. ...
  • Epistemology: A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge, by Robert Audi. ...
  • Epistemology: An Anthology, by Ernest Sosa. ...
  • Theaetetus, by Plato. ...
  • Meditations on First Philosophy, by René Descartes. ...
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, by John Locke.

What are the three main questions of epistemology? ›

In these debates and others, epistemology aims to answer questions such as "What do we know?", "What does it mean to say that we know something?", "What makes justified beliefs justified?", and "How do we know that we know?".

What is another word for epistemology? ›

In this page you can discover 16 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for epistemology, like: theory-of-knowledge, theory, phenomenology, objectivism, metaphysics, functionalism, metaphysic, structuralism, philosophical, epistemological and philosophy.

Who is the father of epistemology in philosophy? ›

René Descartes (1596–1650) is widely regarded as the father of modern philosophy. His noteworthy contributions extend to mathematics and physics. This entry focuses on his philosophical contributions in the theory of knowledge.

What are Plato's two realms of epistemology? ›

Plato's philosophy asserts that there are two realms: the physical realm and the spiritual realm.

What is the difference between philosophy and epistemology? ›

Answer and Explanation: Epistemology is one branch of philosophy. There are other branches of philosophy including metaphysics that examine the nature of truth and the relationships of subject to object, or the existence of God. Another branch of philosophy is ethics which is concerned with questions of right or wrong.


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